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中华人民共和国行政诉讼法(附英文)

发布时间:2009-09-07



中华人民共和国行政诉讼法(附英文) 
 1989年4月4第七届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过
时效性: 有效 
颁布单位:全国人民代表大会
颁布日期: 1989.04.04 
实施日期: 1990.10.01
失效日期: 
文号:中华人民共和国主席令第十六号

 

  《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》已由中华人民共和国第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二次会议于1989年4月4日通过,现予公布,自1990年10月1日起施行。                        

                                                                                                                 中华人民共和国主席 杨尚昆 


                             198944日 

       

 

目  录        
第一章  总  则    
第二章  受案范围    
第三章  官  辖    
第四章  诉讼参加人    
第五章  证  据    
第六章  起诉和受理    
第七章  审理和判决    
第八章  执  行    
第九章  侵权赔偿责任    
第十章  涉外行政诉讼    
第十一章  附  则           


  第一章  总  则    
  第一条  为保证人民法院正确、及时审理行政案件,保护公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益,维护和监督行政机关依法行使行政职权,根据宪法制定本法。     第二条  公民、法人或者其他组织认为行政机关和行政机关工作人员的具体行政行为侵犯其合法权益,有权依照本法向人民法院提起诉讼。    
  第三条  人民法院依法对行政案件独立行使审判权,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。    
  人民法院设行政审判庭,审理行政案件。    
  第四条  人民法院审理行政案件,以事实为根据,以法律为准绳。    
  第五条  人民法院审理行政案件,对具体行政行为是否合法进行审查。      第六条  人民法院审理行政案件,依法实行合议、回避、公开审判和两审终审制度。    
  第七条  当事人在行政诉讼中的法律地位平等。    
  第八条  各民族公民都有用本民族语言、文字进行行政诉讼的权利。    
在少数民族聚居或者多民族共同居住的地区,人民法院应当用当地民族通用的语言、文字进行审理和发布法律文书。    
  人民法院应当对不通晓当地民族通用的语言、文字的诉讼参与人提供翻译。     第九条  当事人在行政诉讼中有权进行辩论。    
  第十条  人民检察院有权对行政诉讼实行法律监督。           

  第二章  受案范围    
  第十一条  人民法院受理公民、法人和其他组织对下列具体行政行为不服提起的诉讼:    
  (一)对拘留、罚款、吊销许可证和执照、责令停产停业、没收财物等行政处罚不服的;    
  (二)对限制人身自由或者对财产的查封、扣押、冻结等行政强制措施不服的;    
  (三)认为行政机关侵犯法律规定的经营自主权的;    
  (四)认为符合法定条件申请行政机关颁发许可证和执照,行政机关拒绝颁发或者不予答复的;    
  (五)申请行政机关履行保护人身权、财产权的法定职责,行政机关拒绝履行或者不予答复的;    
  (六)认为行政机关没有依法发给抚恤金的;    
  (七)认为行政机关违法要求履行义务的;    
  (八)认为行政机关侵犯其他人身权、财产权的。   
   除前款规定外,人民法院受理法律、法规规定可以提起诉讼的其他行政案件。    
  第十二条  人民法院不受理公民、法人或者其他组织对下列事项提起的诉讼:    
  (一)国防、外交等国家行为;    
  (二)行政法规、规章或者行政机关制定、发布的具有普遍约束力的决定、命令;    
  (三)行政机关对行政机关工作人员的奖惩、任免等决定;    
  (四)法律规定由行政机关最终裁决的具体行政行为。           

  第三章  管  辖    
  第十三条  基层人民法院管辖第一审行政案件。    
  第十四条  中级人民法院管辖下列第一审行政案件:    
  (一)确认发明专利权的案件、海关处理的案件;    
  (二)对国务院各部门或者省、自治区、直辖市人民政府所作的具体行政行为提起诉讼的案件;    
  (三)本辖区内重大、复杂的案件。    
  第十五条  高级人民法院管辖本辖区内重大、复杂的第一审行政案件。      第十六条  最高人民法院管辖全国范围内重大、复杂的第一审行政案件。      第十七条  行政案件由最初作出具体行政行为的行政机关所在地人民法院管辖。经复议的案件,复议机关改变原具体行政行为的,也可以由复议机关所在地人民法院管辖。    
  第十八条  对限制人身自由的行政强制措施不服提起的诉讼,由被告所在地或者原告所在地人民法院管辖。    
  第十九条  因不动产提起的行政诉讼,由不动产所在地人民法院管辖。      第二十条  两个以上人民法院都有管辖权的案件,原告可以选择其中一个人民法院提起诉讼。原告向两个以上有管辖权的人民法院提起诉讼的,由最先收到起诉状的人民法院管辖。    
  第二十一条  人民法院发现受理的案件不属于自己管辖时,应当移送有管辖权的人民法院。受移送的人民法院不得自行移送。    
  第二十二条  有管辖权的人民法院由于特殊原因不能行使管辖权的,由上级人民法院指定管辖。    
  人民法院对管辖权发生争议,由争议双方协商解决。协商不成的,报它们的共同上级人民法院指定管辖。    
  第二十三条  上级人民法院有权审判下级人民法院管辖的第一审行政案件,也可以把自己管辖的第一审行政案件移交下级人民法院审判。    
  下级人民法院对其管辖的第一审行政案件,认为需要由上级人民法院审判的,可以报请上级人民法院决定。           

  第四章  诉讼参加人    
  第二十四条  依照本法提起诉讼的公民、法人或者其他组织是原告。    
  有权提起诉讼的公民死亡,其近亲属可以提起诉讼。    
  有权提起诉讼的法人或者其他组织终止,承受其权利的法人或者其他组织可以提起诉讼。    
  第二十五条  公民、法人或者其他组织直接向人民法院提起诉讼的,作出具体行政行为的行政机关是被告。    
  经复议的案件,复议机关决定维持原具体行政行为的,作出原具体行政行为的行政机关是被告;复议机关改变原具体行政行为的,复议机关是被告。    
  两个以上行政机关作出同一具体行政行为的,共同作出具体行政行为的行政机关是共同被告。    
  由法律、法规授权的组织所作的具体行政行为,该组织是被告。由行政机关委托的组织所作的具体行政行为,委托的行政机关是被告。    
  行政机关被撤销的,继续行使其职权的行政机关是被告。    
  第二十六条  当事人一方或双方为二人以上,因同一具体行政行为发生的行政案件,或者因同样的具体行政行为发生的行政案件、人民法院认为可以合并审理的,为共同诉讼。    
  第二十七条  同提起诉讼的具体行政行为有利害关系的其他公民、法人或者其他组织,可以作为第三人申请参加诉讼,或者由人民法院通知参加诉讼。      第二十八条  没有诉讼行为能力的公民,由其法定代理人代为诉讼。法定代理人互相推诿代理责任的,由人民法院指定其中一人代为诉讼。    
  第二十九条  当事人、法定代理人,可以委托一至二人代为诉讼。    
  律师、社会团体、提起诉讼的公民的近亲属或者所在单位推荐的人,以及经人民法院许可的其他公民,可以受委托为诉讼代理人。    
  第三十条  代理诉讼的律师,可以依照规定查阅本案有关材料,可以向有关组织和公民调查,收集证据。对涉及国家秘密和个人隐私的材料,应当依照法律规定保密。    
  经人民法院许可,当事人和其他诉讼代理人可以查阅本案庭审材料,但涉及国家秘密和个人隐私的除外。            
  
  第五章  证  据    
  第三十一条  证据有以下几种:    
  (一)书证;    
  (二)物证;    
  (三)视听资料;   
  (四)证人证言;    
  (五)当事人的陈述;    
  (六)鉴定结论;    
  (七)勘验笔录、现场笔录。   
   以上证据经法庭审查属实,才能作为定案的根据。   
  第三十二条  被告对作出的具体行政行为负有举证责任,应当提供作出该具体行政行为的证据和所依据的规范性文件。    
  第三十三条  在诉讼过程中,被告不得自行向原告和证人收集证据。    
  第三十四条  人民法院有权要求当事人提供或者补充证据。    人民法院有权向有关行政机关以及其他组织、公民调取证据。    
  第三十五条  在诉讼过程中,人民法院认为对专门性问题需要鉴定的,应当交由法定鉴定部门鉴定;没有法定鉴定部门的,由人民法院指定的鉴定部门鉴定。    
  第三十六条  在证据可能灭失或者以后难以取得的情况下,诉讼参加人可以向人民法院申请保全证据,人民法院也可以主动采取保全措施。            
 
  第六章  起诉和受理    
  第三十七条  对属于人民法院受案范围的行政案件,公民、法人或者其他组织可以先向上一级行政机关或者法律、法规规定的行政机关申请复议,对复议不服的,再向人民法院提起诉讼;也可以直接向人民法院提起诉讼。    
  法律、法规规定应当先向行政机关申请复议,对复议不服再向人民法院提起诉讼的,依照法律、法规的规定。   
   第三十八条  公民、法人或者其他组织向行政机关申请复议的,复议机关应当在收到申请书之日起两个月内作出决定。法律、法规另有规定的除外。    
  申请人不服复议决定的,可以在收到复议决定书之日起十五日内向人民法院提起诉讼。复议机关逾期不作决定的,申请人可以在复议期满之日起十五日内向人民法院提起诉讼。法律另有规定的除外。    
  第三十九条  公民、法人或者其他组织直接向人民法院提起诉讼的,应当在知道作出具体行政行为之日起三个月内提出。法律另有规定的除外。    
  第四十条  公民、法人或者其他组织因不可抗力或者其他特殊情况耽误法定期限的,在障碍消除后的十日内,可以申请延长期限,由人民法院决定。    第  四十一条  提起诉讼应当符合下列条件:    
  (一)原告是认为具体行政行为侵犯其合法权益的公民、法人或者其他组织;    
  (二)有明确的被告;    
  (三)有具体的诉讼请求和事实根据;   
  (四)属于人民法院受案范围和受诉人民法院管辖。   
   第四十二条  人民法院接到起诉状,经审查,应当在七日内立案或者作出裁定不予受理。原告对裁定不服的,可以提起上诉。      

  第七章  审理和判决    
  第四十三条  人民法院应当在立案之日起五日内,将起诉状副本发送被告。被告应当在收到起诉状副本之日起十日内向人民法院提交作出具体行政行为的有关材料,并提出答辩状。人民法院应当在收到答辩状之日起五日内,将答辩状副本发送原告。    
  被告不提出答辩状的,不影响人民法院审理。    
  第四十四条  诉讼期间,不停止具体行政行为的执行。但有下列情形之一的,停止具体行政行为的执行:    
  (一)被告认为需要停止执行的;   
  (二)原告申请停止执行,人民法院认为该具体行政行为的执行会造成难以弥补的损失,并且停止执行不损害社会公共利益,裁定停止执行的;    
  (三)法律、法规规定停止执行的。    
  第四十五条  人民法院公开审理行政案件,但涉及国家秘密、个人隐私和法律另有规定的除外。    
  第四十六条  人民法院审理行政案件,由审判员组成合议庭,或者由审判员、陪审员组成合议庭。合议庭的成员,应当是三人以上的单数。   
  第四十七条  当事人认为审判人员与本案有利害关系或者有其他关系可能影响公正审判,有权申请审判人员回避。    
  审判人员认为自己与本案有利害关系或者有其他关系,应当申请回避。      前两款规定,适用于书记员、翻译人员、鉴定人、勘验人。    
  院长担任审判长时的回避,由审判委员会决定;审判人员的回避,由院长决定;其他人员的回避,由审判长决定。当事人对决定不服的,可以申请复议。

第四十八条  经人民法院两次合法传唤,原告无正当理由拒不到庭的,视为申请撤诉;被告无正当理由拒不到庭的,可以缺席判决。    

  第四十九条  诉讼参与人或者其他人有下列行为之一的,人民法院可以根据情节轻重,予以训诫、责令具结悔过或者处一千元以下的罚款、十五日以下的拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:    
  (一)有义务协助执行的人,对人民法院的协助执行通知书,无故推拖、拒绝或者妨碍执行的;   
  (二)伪造、隐藏、毁灭证据的;    
  (三)指使、贿买、胁迫他人作伪证或者威胁、阻止证人作证的;    
  (四)隐藏、转移、变卖、毁损已被查封、扣押、冻结的财产的;   
  (五)以暴力、威胁或者其他方法阻碍人民法院工作人员执行职务或者扰乱人民法院工作秩序的;    
  (六)对人民法院工作人员、诉讼参与人、协助执行人侮辱、诽谤、诬陷、殴打或者打击报复的。    
  罚款、拘留须经人民法院院长批准。当事人对决定不服的,可以申请复议。     第五十条  人民法院审理行政案件,不适用调解。   
  第五十一条  人民法院对行政案件宣告判决或者裁定前,原告申请撤诉的,或者被告改变其所作的具体行政行为,原告同意并申请撤诉的,是否准许,由人民法院裁定。    
  第五十二条  人民法院审理行政案件,以法律和行政法规、地方性法规为依据。地方性法规适用于本行政区域内发生的行政案件。    
  人民法院审理民族自治地方的行政案件,并以该民族自治地方的自治条例和单行条例为依据。    
  第五十三条  人民法院审理行政案件,参照国务院部、委根据法律和国务院的行政法规、决定、命令制定、发布的规章以及省、自治区、直辖市和省、自治区的人民政府所在地的市和经国务院批准的较大的市的人民政府根据法律和国务院的行政法规制定、发布的规章。    
  人民法院认为地方人民政府制定、发布的规章与国务院部、委制定、发布的规章不一致的,以及国务院部、委制定、发布的规章之间不一致的,由最高人民法院送请国务院作出解释或者裁决。    
  第五十四条  人民法院经过审理,根据不同情况,分别作出以下判决:   
  (一)具体行政行为证据确凿,适用法律、法规正确,符合法定程序的,判决维持。    
  (二)具体行政行为有下列情形之一的,判决撤销或者部分撤销,并可以判决被告重新作出具体行政行为:    
  ⒈主要证据不足的;    
  ⒉适用法律、法规错误的;    
  ⒊违反法定程序的;    
  ⒋超越职权的;    
  ⒌滥用职权的。    
  (三)被告不履行或者拖延履行法定职责的,判决其在一定期限内履行。      (四)行政处罚显失公正的,可以判决变更。   
   第五十五条  人民法院判决被告重新作出具体行政行为的,被告不得以同一的事实和理由作出与原具体行政行为基本相同的具体行政行为。    
  第五十六条  人民法院在审理行政案件中,认为行政机关的主管人员、直接责任人员违反政纪的,应当将有关材料移送该行政机关或者其上一级行政机关或者监察、人事机关;认为有犯罪行为的,应当将有关材料移送公安、检察机关。     第五十七条  人民法院应当在立案之日起三个月内作出第一审判决。有特殊情况需要延长的,由高级人民法院批准,高级人民法院审理第一审案件需要延长的,由最高人民法院批准。    
  第五十八条  当事人不服人民法院第一审判决的,有权在判决书送达之日起十五日内向上一级人民法院提起上诉。当事人不服人民法院第一审裁定的,有权在裁定书送达之日起十日内向上一级人民法院提起上诉。逾期不提起上诉的,人民法院的第一审判决或者裁定发生法律效力。    
  第五十九条  人民法院对上诉案件,认为事实清楚的,可以实行书面审理。     第六十条  人民法院审理上诉案件,应当在收到上诉状之日起两个月内作出终审判决。有特殊情况需要延长的,由高级人民法院批准,高级人民法院审理上诉案件需要延长的,由最高人民法院批准。    
  第六十一条  人民法院审理上诉案件,按照下列情形,分别处理:    
  (一)原判决认定事实清楚,适用法律、法规正确的,判决驳回上诉,维持原判;    
  (二)原判决认定事实清楚,但是适用法律、法规错误的,依法改判;   
  (三)原判决认定事实不清,证据不足,或者由于违反法定程序可能影响案件正确判决的,裁定撤销原判,发回原审人民法院重审,也可以查清事实后改判。当事人对重审案件的判决、裁定,可以上诉。    
  第六十二条  当事人对已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,认为确有错误的,可以向原审人民法院或者上一级人民法院提出申诉,但判决、裁定不停止执行。     第六十三条  人民法院院长对本院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,发现违反法律、法规规定认为需要再审的,应当提交审判委员会决定是否再审。    上级人民法院对下级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,发现违反法律、法规规定的,有权提审或者指令下级人民法院再审。    
  第六十四条  人民检察院对人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,发现违反法律、法规规定的,有权按照审判监督程序提出抗诉。            
  第八章  执  行    
  第六十五条  当事人必须履行人民法院发生法律效力的判决、裁定。    
  公民、法人或者其他组织拒绝履行判决、裁定的,行政机关可以向第一审人民法院申请强制执行,或者依法强制执行。    
  行政机关拒绝履行判决、裁定的,第一审人民法院可以采取以下措施:      (一)对应当归还的罚款或者应当给付的赔偿金,通知银行从该行政机关的帐户内划拨;    
  (二)在规定期限内不执行的,从期满之日起,对该行政机关按日处五十元至一百元的罚款;     
  (三)向该行政机关的上一级行政机关或者监察、人事机关提出司法建议。接受司法建议的机关,根据有关规定进行处理,并将处理情况告知人民法院;      (四)拒不执行判决、裁定,情节严重构成犯罪的,依法追究主管人员和直接责任人员的刑事责任。    
  第六十六条  公民、法人或者其他组织对具体行政行为在法定期间不提起诉讼又不履行的,行政机关可以申请人民法院强制执行,或者依法强制执行。            
  第九章  侵权赔偿责任    
  第六十七条  公民、法人或者其他组织的合法权益受到行政机关或者行政机关工作人员作出的具体行政行为侵犯造成损害的,有权请求赔偿。    
  公民、法人或者其他组织单独就损害赔偿提出请求,应当先由行政机关解决。对行政机关的处理不服,可以向人民法院提起诉讼。    
  赔偿诉讼可以适用调解。    
  第六十八条  行政机关或者行政机关工作人员作出的具体行政行为侵犯公民、法人或者其他组织的合法权益造成损害的,由该行政机关或者该行政机关工作人员所在的行政机关负责赔偿。    
  行政机关赔偿损失后,应当责令有故意或者重大过失的行政机关工作人员承担部分或者全部赔偿费用。    
  第六十九条  赔偿费用,从各级财政列支。各级人民政府可以责令有责任的行政机关支付部分或者全部赔偿费用。具体办法由国务院规定。            
  
  第十章  涉外行政诉讼    
  第七十条  外国人、无国籍人、外国组织在中华人民共和国进行行政诉讼,适用本法。法律另有规定的除外。   
  第七十一条  外国人、无国籍人、外国组织在中华人民共和国进行行政诉讼,同中华人民共和国公民、组织有同等的诉讼权利和义务。    
  外国法院对中华人民共和国公民、组织的行政诉讼权利加以限制的,人民法院对该国公民、组织的行政诉讼权利,实行对等原则。    
  第七十二条  中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约同本法有不同规定的,适用该国际条约的规定。中华人民共和国声明保留的条款除外。    
  第七十三条  外国人、无国籍人、外国组织在中华人民共和国进行行政诉讼,委托律师代理诉讼的,应当委托中华人民共和国律师机构的律师。            
  第十一章  附  则    
  第七十四条  人民法院审理行政案件,应当收取诉讼费用。诉讼费用由败诉方承担,双方都有责任的由双方分担。收取诉讼费用的具体办法另行规定。      第七十五条  本法自1990年10月1日起施行。            ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE LAW OF THE PEOPLE''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''S REPUBLIC OF CHINA                        Important Notice: (注意事项)        
  英文本源自中华人民共和国务院法制局编译, 中国法制出版社出版的《中华人民共和国涉外法规汇编》(19917月版).    
  当发生歧意时, 应以法律法规颁布单位发布的中文原文为准.
This
  English  document  is  coming  from  "LAWS  AND  REGULATIONS  OF THEPEOPLE''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''S REPUBLIC OF  CHINA  GOVERNING  FOREIGN-RELATED  MATTERS" (1991.7)which  is  compiled  by  the  Brueau  of  Legislative Affairs of the StateCouncil of  the  People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s Republic of China, and is published by the ChinaLegal System Publishing House.
In case of discrepancy, the original version in Chinese shall prevail.            
      Whole Document (法规全文)    
ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE LAW OF THE PEOPLE''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''S REPUBLIC OF CHINA(Adopted at the Second Session of the  Seventh  National  People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''sCongress on April 4, 1989, promulgated by Order No. 16 of the President ofthe People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s Republic of China on April  4,  1989,  and  effective  as  ofOctober 1, 1990)           

Contents    
Chapter I    
General ProvisionsChapter II    
Scope of Accepting CasesChapter III   
JurisdictionChapter IV    
Participants in ProceedingsChapter V     
EvidenceChapter VI    
Bringing a Suit and Accepting a CaseChapter VII   
Trial and JudgmentChapter VIII  
ExecutionChapter IX    
Liability for Compensation for Infringement of RightsChapter X     Administrative Procedure Involving Foreign InterestChapter XI    
   Supplementary Provisions            
Chapter I General Provisions   

Article 1
Pursuant to the Constitution, this Law is enacted for the purpose ofensuring the correct and prompt handling of administrative cases by  thepeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts, protecting the lawful rights and interests of citizens,legal persons and other organizations, and safeguarding and  supervisingthe exercise of administrative powers by administrative  organs inaccordance with the law.

Article 2
If a citizen, a legal person or any other organization considers that  hisor its lawful rights and interests have been infringed upon by a  specificadministrative act of an administrative organ or its personnel, he or itshall have the right to bring a suit before a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court in accordancewith this Law.

Article 3
The people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts shall,in accordance with the law, exercise judicialpower independently with respect to administrative cases, and shall not besubject to interference by any administrative organ, public organizationor individual.  The people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts shall set up administrative  divisionsfor the handling of administrative cases.

Article 4
In conducting administrative proceedings, the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts  shall  basethemselves on facts and take the law as the criterion.

Article 5
In handling administrative cases, the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts shall examine  thelegality of specific administrative acts.

Article 6
In handling administrative cases, the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts shall,as prescribedby law, apply the systems  of  collegial  panel,  withdrawal  of judicialpersonnel and public trial and a system whereby the second instance is thefinal instance.

Article 7
Parties to an administrative suit shall have equal legal positions.

Article 8
Citizens of all nationalities shall have the right  to  use  their  nativespoken and written languages in administrative proceedings.
In an area where people of a minority
  nationality  live  in  concentratedcommunities or where a number of nationalities live together, the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''scourts shall  conduct  adjudication  and  issue  legal  documents  in  thelanguage or languages commonly used by the local nationalities.The people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts  shall  provide  interpretation  for  participants  inproceedings who do not understand the language or languages commonly  usedby the local nationalities.   

Article 9
Parties to an administrative suit shall have the right to debate.

Article 10
The people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  procuratorates  shall  have  the  right  to  exercise  legalsupervision over administrative proceedings.           

Chapter II Scope of Accepting Cases    
Article 11
The people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts shall accept suits brought by citizens, legal  personsor other organizations against any of the following   specificadministrative acts:
(1) an administrative sanction, such as detention, fine, rescission  of alicense or permit, order to suspend production or business or confiscationof property, which one refuses to accept;
(2) a compulsory administrative measure, such as  restricting  freedom  ofthe person or the sealing up, seizing or freezing of property,  which onerefuses to accept;
(3) infringement upon one''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s managerial decision-making  powers,  which  isconsidered to have been perpetrated by an administrative organ;
(4) refusal by an administrative organ to issue a permit or license, whichone considers oneself legally qualified to apply for, or  its  failure  torespond to the application;
(5) refusal by an administrative organ to perform its  statutory  duty  ofprotecting one''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s rights of the person and of property, as one has  appliedfor, or its failure to respond to the application;
(6) cases where an administrative organ is considered to  have  failed  toissue a pension according to law;
(7) cases where an administrative organ is considered  to  have  illegallydemanded the performance of duties; 
and(8) cases where an administrative organ is considered  to  have  infringedupon other rights of the person and of property.
Apart from the provisions set  forth  in  the  preceding  paragraphs,  thepeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts shall accept other administrative suits which may  bebrought  in  accordance  with the provisions of relevant laws   andregulations.

Article 12
The people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts shall not accept  suits  brought  by  citizens,  legalpersons or other organizations against any of the following matters:
(1) acts of the state in areas like national defence and foreign affairs;
(2) administrative rules and regulations, regulations,  or  decisions  andorders  with  general  binding   force   formulated   and   announced   byadministrative organs;
(3) decisions of an administrative organ on awards or punishments for  itspersonnel or on the appointment or relief of duties of its personnel; 
and(4) specific administrative acts that shall, as provided for  by  law,  befinally decided by an administrative organ.           

Chapter III Jurisdiction    
Article 13
The basic people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts shall  have  jurisdiction  as  courts  of  firstinstance over administrative cases.

Article 14
The intermediate people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts shall  have  jurisdiction  as  courts  offirst instance over the following administrative cases:
(1) cases of confirming patent rights of invention and  cases  handled  bythe Customs;
(2) suits against specific administrative acts undertaken  by  departmentsunder the State Council or by the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s governments of provinces,autonomous regions or municipalities directly under the CentralGovernment; 
and(3) grave and complicated cases in areas under their jurisdiction.

Article 15
The higher people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts shall have  jurisdiction  as  courts  of  firstinstance over grave and complicated administrative cases  in  areas  undertheir jurisdiction.

Article 16
The Supreme People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s Court shall have jurisdiction as  a  court  of  firstinstance over grave and complicated  administrative  cases  in  the  wholecountry.

Article 17
An administrative case shall be under the  jurisdiction  of  the  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''scourt in the locality of the administrative organ that initially undertookthe specific administrative act. A reconsidered case in  which  the  organconducting  the  reconsideration  has  amended   the   original   specificadministrative act may also  be  placed  under  the  jurisdiction  of  thepeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court in the locality of the administrative organ conducting  thereconsideration.

Article 18
A suit against compulsory administrative measures restricting  freedom  ofthe person shall be under the jurisdiction of a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court in theplace where the defendant or the plaintiff is located.

Article 19
An administrative suit regarding  a  real  property  shall  be  under  thejurisdiction of the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court in the place where the real property islocated.

Article 20
When two or more people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  courts  have  jurisdiction  over  a  suit,  theplaintiff may have the option to bring the suit in one of  these  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''scourts. If the plaintiff brings the suit in two or  more people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  courtsthat have jurisdiction over  the  suit,  the  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  court  that  firstreceives the bill of complaint shall have jurisdiction.   

Article 21
If a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court finds that a case it has accepted  is  not  under  itsjurisdiction, it shall transfer the case to the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court  that  doeshave jurisdiction over the case.  The people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court to which the case hasbeen transferred shall not on its own initiative transfer  it  to  anotherpeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court.

Article 22
If a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court which has jurisdiction over a case is unable  toexercise its jurisdiction for special  reasons,  a  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  court  at  ahigher level shall designate another court to exercise the jurisdiction.If a dispute arises over jurisdiction between people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts, it shall beresolved by the parties  to  the  dispute  through  consultation.  If  thedispute cannot be resolved through consultation, it shall be reported to apeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court superior to the courts in dispute for  the  designation  ofjurisdiction.

Article 23
People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts at higher levels shall have the  authority  to  adjudicateadministrative cases over which  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  courts  at  lower  levels  havejurisdiction  as  courts  of  first  instance;  they  may  also   transferadministrative cases over  which  they  themselves  have  jurisdiction  ascourts of first instance to people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts at lower levels for trial.  Ifa people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court deems it necessary for an administrative  case  of  firstinstance under its jurisdiction to be adjudicated by a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court at ahigher level, it may report to such a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court for decision.           

Chapter IV Participants in Proceedings    
Article 24
A citizen, a legal person or any other organization that brings a suit  inaccordance with this Law shall be a plaintiff.
If a citizen who has the right to bring  a  suit  is  deceased,  his  nearrelatives may bring the suit.
If a legal person or any other organization that has the right to bring  asuit terminates, the legal person or any other organization that  succeedsto its rights may bring the suit.

Article 25
If a citizen, a legal person or any  other  organization,  brings  a  suitdirectly before a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court, the administrative organ that  undertookthe specific administrative act shall be the defendant.
For a reconsidered case, if the organ that conducted  the  reconsiderationsustains the original  specific  administrative  act,  the  administrativeorgan that initially undertook the act shall  be  the  defendant;  if  theorgan that conducted the reconsideration has amended the original specificadministrative  act,  the  administrative  organ   which   conducted   thereconsideration shall be the defendant.
If two or more administrative organs have  undertaken  the  same  specificadministrative act, the administrative organs that have jointly undertakenthe act shall be the joint defendants.
If a specific administrative act has been undertaken  by  an  organizationauthorized  to  undertake  the  act  by  the  law  or   regulations,   theorganization shall be the defendant. 
If a specific administrative act  hasbeen undertaken by an  organization  as  entrusted  by  an  administrativeorgan, the entrusting organ shall be the defendant.
If an administrative organ has been abolished,  the  administrative  organthat carries on the exercise of functions  and  powers  of  the  abolishedorgan shall be the defendant.

Article 26
A joint suit shall be constituted when one party or both  parties  consistof two or more persons and the administrative cases are against  the  samespecific administrative act or against the specific administrative acts ofthe same nature and the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court considers that  the  cases  can  behandled together.Article 27If any other citizen, legal person or any other organization has interestsin a specific administrative act under litigation, he  or  it  may,  as  athird party, file a request to  participate  in  the  proceedings  or  mayparticipate in them when so notified by the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court.    
Article 28
Any citizen with no capacity to take part in litigation shall have one  ormore legal representatives who will act on his behalf in a  suit.  If thelegal representatives try to shift their responsibilities onto each other,the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court may appoint one of them as the  representative of theprincipal in litigation.

Article 29
Each party or legal representative may  entrust  one  or  two  persons  torepresent him in litigation.A lawyer, a public organization, a near relative of the  citizen  bringingthe suit, or a person  recommended  by  the  unit  to  which  the  citizenbringing the suit belongs or any other citizen approved  by  the  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''scourt may be entrusted as an agent ad litem.

Article 30
A lawyer who serves as an agent ad litem may consult materials  pertaining to  the  case  in  accordance  with  relevant  provisions,  and  may  alsoinvestigate among and collect evidence from the organizations and citizensconcerned.If the  information  involves  state  secrets  or  the  privateaffairs of individuals, he shall keep it confidential in  accordance  withrelevant provisions of the law.
With the approval of the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court, parties and other agents ad litemmay consult the materials relating to the court proceedings of  the  case,except those  that  involve  state  secrets  or  the  private affairs  ofindividuals.          

Chapter V Evidence    
Article 31
Evidence shall be classified as follows:
(1) documentary evidence;
(2) material evidence;
(3) audio-visual material;
(4) testimony of witnesses;
(5) statements of the parties;
(6) expert conclusions; 
and(7) records of inquests and records made on the scene.Any of the above-mentioned evidence must be verified by the  court  beforeit can be taken as a basis for ascertaining a fact.

Article 32
The defendant shall have the burden of proof for the specificadministrative act he has undertaken and shall provide  the  evidence  andregulatory documents in accordance with which the act has been undertaken.

Article 33
In the course of legal proceedings, the defendant  shall  not  by  himselfcollect evidence from the plaintiff and witnesses.

Article 34
A people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court shall have  the  authority  to  request  the  parties  toprovide or supplement evidence.A people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court shall have the authority  to  obtain  evidence  from  therelevant administrative organs, other organizations or citizens.

Article 35
In the course of legal proceedings, when a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court  considers  thatan expert evaluation for a specialized problem is  necessary,  the  expertevaluation shall be made by an expert evaluation department  as  specifiedby law. 
In the absence of such a  department,  the  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  court  shalldesignate one to conduct the expert evaluation.

Article 36
Under circumstances where there is  a  likelihood  that  evidence  may  bedestroyed or lost or difficult to obtain later  on,  the  participants  inproceedings may apply to  the  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  court  for  the  evidence  to  bepreserved. The people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court may also on its own initiative take measuresto preserve such evidence.           

Chapter VI Bringing a Suit and Accepting a Case    
Article 37 
A citizen, a legal person or any other organization may, within the  scopeof cases acceptable to the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts,  apply  to  an  administrativeorgan at the next higher level or to an administrative organ as prescribedby the law or regulations  for  reconsideration,  anyone  who  refuses  toaccept the reconsideration decision may bring a  suit  before  a  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''scourt; a citizen, a legal person or any other organization may also  bringa suit directly before a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court.
In circumstances where, in accordance with relevant provisions of laws  orregulations, a citizen, a legal person or  any  other  organization  shallfirst apply to an administrative organ for reconsideration and then  bringa suit before a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  court,  if  he  or  it  refuses  to  accept  thereconsideration decision, the provisions of the laws or regulations  shallapply.

Article 38
If a citizen, a legal person or  any  other  organization  applies  to  anadministrative organ for reconsideration, the organ shall make a  decisionwithin two months from the day of the receipt of the  application,  exceptas otherwise provided for by law or regulations.  Anyone  who  refuses  toaccept the reconsideration decision may bring a  suit  before  a  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''scourt within 15 days from the day of the receipt  of  the  reconsiderationdecision. If the administrative organ conducting the reconsideration failsto make a decision on the expiration of the time limit, the applicant  maybring a suit before a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court within 15 days after the  time  limitfor reconsideration expires, except as otherwise provided for by law.

Article 39
If a citizen, a legal person or  any  other  organization  brings  a  suitdirectly before a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court, he or it shall do so within three monthsfrom the day when he or it knows that a specific  administrative  act  hasbeen undertaken, except as otherwise provided for by law.

Article 40
If a citizen, a legal person or any other organization  fails  to  observethe time limit prescribed by law due to force  majeure  or  other  specialreasons, he or it may apply for an extent of the  time  limit  within  tendays after the obstacle is removed; the requested extent shall be  decidedby a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court.

Article 41
The following requirements shall be met when a suit is brought:
(1) the plaintiff  must  be  a  citizen,  a  legal  person  or  any  otherorganization  that  considers  a  specific  administrative  act  to   haveinfringed upon his or its lawful rights and interests;
(2) there must be a specific defendant or defendants;
(3) there must be a specific claim and a corresponding factual  basis  forthe suit; 
and (4) the suit must fall within the scope of cases  acceptableto the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts and the specific jurisdiction of the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courtwhere it is filed.    Article 42When a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court  receives  a  bill  of  complaint,  it  shall,  uponexamination, file a case  within  seven  days  or  decide  to  reject  thecomplaint. If the plaintiff refuses to accept the decision, he may  appealto a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court.            
Chapter VII Trial and Judgment    
Article 43 
A people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court shall send a  copy  of  the  bill  of  complaint  to  thedefendant within five days of filing the case. The defendant shall providethe people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court with the documents on the basis  of  which  a  specificadministrative act has been undertaken and file a bill of  defence  withinten days of receiving the copy of the bill  of  complaint.   The  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''scourt shall send a copy of the bill of defence  to  the  plaintiff  withinfive days of receiving it. Failure by the defendant  to  file  a  bill  ofdefence shall not prevent the case from being tried by the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court.

Article 44
During  the  time  of  legal  proceedings,  ution  of the   specificadministrative act shall not  be  suspended.  Execution  of  the  specificadministrative  act  shall  be  suspended  under  one  of  the   followingcircumstances:
(1) where suspension is deemed necessary by the defendant;
(2) where suspension of ution is ordered by the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court at  therequest of the plaintiff because, in  the  view  of  the  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  court,ution of the  specific  administrative  act  will  cause  irremediablelosses and suspension of the ution will not harm public interests; or
(3) where suspension of ution is required by the provisions of laws orregulations.

Article 45
Administrative cases in the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts  shall  be  tried  in  public,except for those that involve state secrets  or  the  private  affairs  ofindividuals or are otherwise provided for by law.

Article 46
Administrative cases in the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts shall be tried by a  collegialpanel of judges or of judges and assessors. The number  of  members  of  acollegial panel shall be an odd number of three or more.

Article 47
If a party considers a  member  of  the  judicial  personnel  to  have  aninterest in the case or to be otherwise related to it,  which  may  affectthe impartial handling of the case, the party  shall  have  the  right  todemand his withdrawal.
If a member of  the  judicial  personnel  considers  himself  to  have  aninterest in the case or to be otherwise related to it, he shall apply  forwithdrawal.The provisions of the  two  preceding  paragraphs  shall  apply  to  courtclerks, interpreters, expert witnesses and persons who conduct inquests.
The withdrawal of the president of the court as the chief judge  shall  bedecided by the court''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s adjudication committee; the withdrawal of a  memberof the judicial personnel shall be decided by the president of the court;the withdrawal of other personnel shall be decided by the chief judge.Parties who refuse to accept the decision may apply for reconsideration.   

Article 48
If the plaintiff refuses to appear  in  court  without  justified  reasonsafter being twice legally summoned by the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court, the court  shallconsider this an application for  the  withdrawal  of  the  suit;  if  thedefendant refuses to appear in court without justified reasons, the  courtmay make a judgment by default.

Article 49
If a participant in the proceedings or any other person commits any of thefollowing acts, the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court may, according to  the  seriousness  ofhis offence, reprimand him, order him to sign a statement of repentance orimpose upon him a fine of not more than 1,000 yuan or detain him  for  notlonger  than  15  days;  if  a  crime   is  constituted, his criminalresponsibility shall be investigated:
(1) evading without reason, refusing  to  assist  in  or  obstructing  theution of the  notice  of  a  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  court  for  assistance  in  itsution by a person who has the duty to render assistance;
(2) forging, concealing or destroying evidence;
(3) instigating, suborning or threatening  others  to  commit  perjury  orhindering witnesses from giving testimony;
(4) concealing, transferring, selling or destroying the property that  hasbeen sealed up, seized or frozen;
(5) using violence, threats or other means to hinder the  personnel  of  apeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court from performing their duties or disturbing the order of thework of a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court; or (6) insulting, slandering,  framing,  beatingor retaliating against the personnel of a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court, participants  inproceedings or personnel who assist in the ution of duties; A fine  ordetention must be approved by the president of a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court.   Partieswho  refuse  to   accept   the   punishment   decision   may   apply   forreconsideration.

Article 50  
A people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  court  shall  not   apply   conciliation   in   handling   anadministrative case.

Article 51
Before  a  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  court  announces  its  judgment  or   order   on   anadministrative case, if the plaintiff applies for the  withdrawal  of  thesuit, or if the defendant amends its specific administrative act and, as aresult, the plaintiff agrees and applies for the withdrawal of  the  suit,the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court shall decide whether or not to grant the approval.

Article 52
In handling administrative cases, the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts shall take the  law,administrative  rules  and  regulations  and  local  regulations  as   thecriteria. Local regulations shall be applicable  to  administrative  caseswithin the corresponding administrative areas. In handling  administrativecases of a national autonomous area, the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courts shall  also  takethe regulations on autonomy  and  separate  regulations  of  the  nationalautonomous area as the criteria.    
Article 53
In handling administrative cases,  the  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  courts  shall  take,  asreferences,  regulations  formulated  and  announced  by   ministries   orcommissions under the  State  Council  in  accordance  with  the  law  andadministrative rules and regulations, decisions or  orders  of  the  StateCouncil and regulations formulated and announced, in accordance  with  thelaw and administrative rules and regulations of the State Council, by  thepeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s governments of provinces, autonomous regions  and  municipalitiesdirectly under the Central Government, of the cities  where  the  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''sgovernments of provinces and autonomous regions are located,  and  of  thelarger cities approved as such by the State Council.
If a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court considers regulations formulated and  announced  by  alocal people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s government to be inconsistent with  regulations  formulatedand announced by a ministry or commission under the State Council,  or  ifit  considers  regulations  formulated  and  announced  by  ministries  orcommissions under the State Council to be inconsistent  with  each  other,the Supreme People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s Court shall refer the matter to the State Council forinterpretation or ruling.

Article 54
After hearing a case, a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court shall make the following  judgmentsaccording to the varying conditions:
(1) If the evidence for  undertaking  a  specific  administrative  act  isconclusive, the application of the law  and  regulations  to  the  act  iscorrect,  and  the  legal  procedure  is  complied  with,   the   specificadministrative act shall be sustained by judgment.
(2) If a specific administrative act has been undertaken  in  one  of  thefollowing circumstances, the act shall be annulled or  partially  annulledby judgment, or the defendant may be required by judgment to  undertake  aspecific administrative act anew:a. inadequacy of essential evidence;b. erroneous application of the law or regulations;c. violation of legal procedure;d. exceeding authority; ore. abuse of powers.
(3) If a defendant fails to perform  or  delays  the  performance  of  hisstatutory duty, a fixed time shall be set by judgment for his  performanceof the duty.
(4) If an administrative sanction is obviously unfair, it may  be  amendedby judgment.   

Article 55 
A defendant who has been  judged  by  a  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  court  to  undertake  aspecific administrative act anew must not, based  on  the  same  fact  andreason, undertake a specific administrative act essentially identical withthe original act.

Article 56
In handling administrative cases, if a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court considers  the  headof an administrative organ or  the  person  directly  in  charge  to  haveviolated  administrative  discipline,  it  shall  transfer  the   relevantmaterials to the administrative organ or the administrative organ  at  thenext higher level or to  a  supervisory  or  personnel  department;  if  apeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court considers the person to have committed a  crime,  it  shalltransfer the relevant materials to the public security  and  procuratorialorgans.

Article 57 
A people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court shall pass a judgment  of  first  instance  within  threemonths from the  day  of  filing  the  case.  Extent  of  the  time  limitnecessitated by special  circumstances  shall  be  approved  by  a  higherpeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court, extent of the time limit for  handling  a  case  of  firstinstance by a higher people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court, extent of the time limit for handlinga case of first instance by a higher people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court shall be  approved  bythe Supreme People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s Court.

Article 58
If a party refuses to accept a judgment of first instance  by  a  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''scourt, he shall have the right to file an appeal with the  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  courtat the next higher level within 15 days of  the  serving  of  the  writtenjudgment. If a party refuses to accept an order of  first  instance  by  apeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court, he shall have  the  right  to  file  an  appeal  with  thepeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court at the next higher level within 10 days of the  serving  ofthe written order. All  judgments  and  orders  of  first  instance  by  apeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court that have not been  appealed  within  the  prescribed  timelimit shall be legally effective.

Article 59 
A people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court may handle  an  appealed  case  by  examining  the  courtrecords, if it considers the facts clearly ascertained.

Article 60
In handling an appealed case, a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court shall make a final judgmentwithin two months from the day of receiving the appeal. Extent of the timelimit necessitated by special circumstances shall be approved by a  higherpeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court, extent of the time limit for handling an appealed case  bya higher people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court shall be approved by the Supreme People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s Court.   

Article 61
A people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court shall handle an appealed case respectively  according  tothe conditions set forth below:
(1) if the facts are clearly ascertained and the law and  regulations  arecorrectly applied in the original judgment, the appeal shall  be  rejectedand the original judgment sustained;
(2) if the facts are clearly ascertained but the law and  regulations  areincorrectly applied in  the  original  judgment,  the  judgment  shall  beamended according to the law and regulations; or(3) if the facts are not clearly ascertained in the original  judgment  orthe evidence is insufficient, or a violation of the  prescribed  proceduremay have affected the correctness of the original judgment,  the  originaljudgment shall be rescinded and the case remanded to the original people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''scourt for retrial, or the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court of the second instance may  amendthe judgment after investigating and clarifying the facts. The parties mayappeal against the judgment or order rendered in a retrial of their case.

Article 62
If a party considers that a legally effective judgment or  order  containssome definite error, he may make complaints to the  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  court  whichtried the case or to a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court at a higher level, but the utionof the judgment or order shall not be suspended.

Article 63
If the president of a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court finds a violation  of  provisions  ofthe law or regulations in a legally effective judgment  or  order  of hiscourt and deems it necessary to have the case retried, he shall refer  thematter to the adjudication committee, which shall decide whether a retrialis necessary.
If a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court at a higher level finds a violation of  provisions  ofthe law or regulations in a legally  effective  judgment  or  order  of  apeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court at a lower level, it shall have the power to bring the caseup for trial itself or direct the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court at  the  lower  level  toconduct a retrial.

Article 64
If the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s procuratorate finds a violation of provisions of  the  lawor regulations in a legally effective judgement or  order  of  a  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''scourt, it shall have the right to  lodge  a  protest  in  accordance  withprocedures of judicial supervision.           

Chapter VII Execution    
Article 65
The parties must perform the legally effective judgment or  order  of  thepeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court.  If a citizen, a legal person or  any  other  organizationrefuses to perform the judgment or order,  the  administrative  organ  mayapply to a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court of first instance for  compulsory  ution  orproceed with compulsory ution according to law.  If an  administrativeorgan refuses to perform the judgment or  order,  the  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  court  offirst instance may adopt the following measures:
(1) informing the bank to transfer from the administrative organ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s accountthe amount of the fine that should be returned or the damages that  shouldbe paid;
(2) imposing a fine of 50 to 100 yuan per day on an  administrative  organthat fails to perform the judgment or order  within  the  prescribed  timelimit, counting from the day when the time limit expires;
(3) putting forward  a  judicial  proposal  to  the  administrative  organsuperior to the administrative organ in question or to  a  supervisory  orpersonnel department; the organ or department that  accepts  the  judicialproposal shall deal with  the  matter  in  accordance  with  the  relevantprovisions and inform the people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court of its disposition; and
(4) if an administrative organ refuses to ute a judgment or order, andthe circumstances are so serious that a crime is constituted, the head  ofthe administrative organ and  the  person  directly  in  charge  shall  beinvestigated for criminal responsibility according to law.

Article 66
If a citizen, a legal person or any other organization, during the  periodprescribed by law, neither brings a suit  nor  carries  out  the  specificadministrative act, the administrative organ may apply to a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s courtfor compulsory ution, or proceed with compulsory  ution  accordingto law.           

Chapter IX Liability for Compensation for Infringement of Rights    Article 67
A citizen, a legal person or any other  organization  who  suffers  damagebecause of the infringement upon his or its lawful rights and interests bya specific administrative act of an administrative organ or the  personnelof an administrative organ, shall have the right to claim compensation.If  a  citizen,  a  legal  person  or  any  other  organization  makes  anindependent claim for damages, the case shall first be dealt  with  by  anadministrative organ. Anyone who refuses to accept the disposition by  theadministrative organ may file a suit in a people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court. Conciliation maybe applied in handling a suit for damages.
Article 68
If a specific administrative act undertaken by an administrative organ  orthe personnel of an administrative organ infringes upon the lawful  rightsand interests of a citizen, a legal person or any other  organization  andcauses damage, the administrative organ or  the  administrative  organ  towhich  the  above-mentioned  personnel  belongs  shall   be   liable   forcompensation.
After paying the compensation, the  administrative  organ  shall  instructthose members of its personnel who have  committed  intentional  or  grossmistakes in the case to bear part or all of the damages.

Article 69
The cost of compensation shall  be  included  as  an  expenditure  in  thegovernment budget at various levels. The people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s governments  at  variouslevels may order the administrative organs  responsible  for  causing  thecompensation to bear part or all of the  damages.  The  specific  measuresthereof shall be formulated by the State Council.            
Chapter X Administrative Procedure Involving Foreign Interests    Article 70
This Law shall be applicable to foreign nationals, stateless  persons  andforeign organizations that are engaged  in  administrative  suits  in  thePeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s Republic of China, except as otherwise provided for by law.
Article 71
Foreign nationals, stateless persons and foreign  organizations  that  areengaged in administrative suits in the People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s Republic  of  China  shallhave  the  same  litigation  rights  and  obligations  as   citizens   andorganizations of the People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s Republic of China.  Should the courts  of  aforeign country  impose  restrictions  on  the  administrative  litigationrights of the citizens and  organizations  of  the  People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  Republic  ofChina,  the  Chinese  people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s  courts  shall  follow  the  principle   ofreciprocity regarding the administrative litigation rights of the citizensand organizations of that foreign country.

Article 72
If an international  treaty  concluded  or  acceded  to  by  the  People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''sRepublic of China contains provisions different from those found  in  thisLaw, the provisions of the international treaty shall  apply,  unless  theprovisions are ones on which the People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s Republic of China has  announcedreservations.

Article 73
When  foreign  nationals,  stateless  persons  and  foreign  organizationsappoint lawyers as their agents ad litem in administrative  suits  in  thePeople''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s Republic of China, they  shall  appoint  lawyers  of  a  lawyers''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''organization of the People''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s Republic of China.            
Chapter XI Supplementary Provisions    
Article 74
A people''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s court shall charge litigation fees for handling  administrativecases. The litigation fee shall be borne by the losing party, or  by  bothparties if they are both held responsible. The procedure for the  chargingof litigation fees shall be specified separately.
Article 75
This Law shall come into force as of October 1, 1990.

 



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